The development of multicellular life is inconceivable before single celled life has reached a certain stage of development. The mechanisms ongoing in a cell of a multicellular organism are the result of the evolution of single celled life.
Our society is using human beings as components. Our body is using organs as components. These organs are using the experience of elementary multicellular life. Each organ of our body uses living cells as components. These cells are using the experience resulting from the evolution of single celled life. The living cells are using very complex biochemical molecules as building blocks. The biological molecules are using stable atoms as building blocks. These atoms are using subatomic particles as building blocks. These subatomic particles are using indurated physical laws as construction element, etc.
The development of complex biological molecules is inconceivable in an environment where the atoms are still under full development (e.g. in a star).Before an organism has sufficiently expressed itself in a larger organism, it has to go through a number of typical development stages. Because these stages can be recognized in each externalization cycle, externalization can be described as a spiral. In each cycle, a new expression of the information is developed, a new body for the organism. The stable structures resulting from one cycle are used as building blocks for the new body in the next cycle.
This interaction of externalization cycles makes it sometimes confusing for the observer attempting to distinguish the phases of one particular cycle.
The development of the biological cell did not stop at the moment larger organisms started using these cells as building blocks. This usage was a completely new situation in which cells can gain different experience.
The development of man did not stop on the moment society developed. The new situation of man in a society is a new environment in which man can gain experiences which where not possible before.
Let us take the point where the information being develops a model of the
environment as described in chapter 12.
15.5 Model of the external world.
The gathering of experience and by this the development of a model of the
external world contributes largely to the stabilization of the life of the
information being. This results also in the ability of sensing the
external world (see chapter 12). Before that, it was not aware of the
dangers and opportunities in the environment. By the development of the
senses, the number of surprises reduces gradually and the information
being gains more control over the situation.
15.6 Increasing awareness.
The development of the model of the environment and the associated senses
can be considered as a first step in an evolution of growing awareness.
First the awareness of the environment develops. In this model, a model of
the own body (in the general sense) and its effects on the environment
15.7 Awareness of others of the same kind.
Once the model of the external world includes the model of the self and
its interactions with the external world, the model will soon be extended
by the recognition of "others" of the same kind causing the same effects
in the environment.
Some effects known as joyful (when caused by the own body), are sometimes recognized in the environment but the joy is missing.
When an information being observes another one causing its favorite transformation and eating the resulting energy, the transformation is recognized but the energy is missing. This makes the "other" at first a disturbing factor in the environment which causes the failure of anticipations. For better anticipation, the model of the other is included in the model of the environment.
After the development of communication, there is an increasing
communication of experience and this reduces (very slowly) the diversity.
By means of communication, one individual instantiation has access to the
experience of different other instantiations. The switching between
mappings stimulates the internal separation of abstract experience from
concrete, environment dependent experience. Only those elements of
experience which remain applicable while mappings are changed acquire a
more abstract status.
The deep integration of the abstract information is the base for the ability to act under different circumstances using the same abstract information, even without having experience with the specific circumstances.
Human communication allows us to access the experience of people which have gained their experience in a wide variety of circumstances. The switching of our attention (switching mappings) between these experiences allows us to abstract some common elements from these experiences. This abstraction is only possible by the contact with the different experiences. When there is only one experience, we cannot distinguish what is related to the circumstances in which the experience was gained and what is more general to all possible circumstances.
In the animal realm, we can recognize many forms of cooperation. In the earliest form of cooperation, there is not yet a permanent assignment of tasks to individuals. Birds traveling together, animals hunting together, etc.
Ants and bees have developed stable forms of organizations. Even the functions which are essential for survival are executed by specialized members.
There must be strong stabilizing forces in such cooperation. Members with access to the source of energy must not use all of it to indurate itself. This is solved by a rewarding system in the organization. An economy develops in which the results of the specialized services are "paid" in some universal form of energy. The more members are using the results of the specialized work of a member, the more the member is rewarded and can indurate. By this members are tuned to produce what is needed and parasites are avoided.
The economy developed by mankind is the example easiest to observe by us.
We know of a similar mechanism inside our body. Energy is converted to some universal form (glucose) and distributed by our blood. How much energy a particular cell is allowed to burn is controlled by an elaborate regulation system.
There exist a similar regulation mechanism inside each living cell. In each cell, there is information (catalysts) to convert the available resources in all kinds of chemical structures. The activity of each of these information elements is controlled by specialized elements which distribute messages turning on and off different catalysts.
A set of information such as a philosophy or a technique will only flourish in a society when the results are considered useful by the members of the society.
One bee cannot abandon the hive. Alone, he has no chance on survival.
One human individual is probably still able to survive without the help of a society. The person will experience extreme difficulties and the chances on survival are less than for one living in the society. The dependency of a person on the society increases gradually.
Central control is impossible without a very well developed communication system reporting the needs and the results to a specialized part controlling the economy. Slow or inaccurate communication causes a malfunctioning of the economy.
A regulation of the economy requires also an anticipation function to predict future needs.
Humanity has not yet reached this stage. Attempts on smaller scale (countries) are under development and still fail frequently. The communication infrastructure is not sufficiently developed and there is not yet sufficient experience to anticipate the outcome of changes. The regulation elements which have to avoid the development of parasites is by far not yet stable.
Our body has a quite well developed mechanism of centralized economy. The distribution of energy to the parts corresponds reasonably well to their contribution to the whole. A complex mechanism avoids the development of useless structures which gather energy without contributing to the entire organism. A failure of this mechanism causes the development of a tumor.
To avoid such surprises, the organization develops an awareness of the external factors. Some members become specialized in predicting the outcome of the varying production taking external elements into account.
Our body increases the production of heat when it senses a colder environment.
The economy of our countries is in the very early phase of development of senses. There is a more or less developed system of internal communication which detects shortages or excesses of some resources. The communication between countries to take the anticipated future production by the others of some commodities into account is still very weak and informal. The development of senses to detect planetary changes (on longer term) is also still very weak. The results are too uncertain to relay economical decisions upon (e.g. whether forecast for the following year to anticipate the production of corn and rice).
The human (animal) body has developed an amazing system of senses. They work in a very stable way and the results are already deeply integrated in all other body functions.
Only the largest and most stable companies have developed a mechanism of sensing. It is called marketing and it is even already connected to a restricted internal model of the world to anticipate the effect of a possible action of the company.
Our society is developing some senses. They are still in a premature stage, they do not function well but we can already recognize the shape. Each country has some information centers related to the government. They provide the information upon which the government can rely for decisions. The most developed countries have connected these senses to a mathematical model of their economy. The model is often very restricted to the economy of the country itself and takes only input from the internal senses.
However, the interaction of elements from different evolution schemes disturb this strict order. Elements from asynchronously evolving externalization spirals cooperate and the resulting structures do not fit in the strict scheme. In chapter 17, we will investigate interactions between elements originating from different externalizations.